Church Mission Society
|Formation||12 April 1799|
The Church Mission Society (CMS), formerly in Britain and currently in Australia and New Zealand known as the Church Missionary Society, is a mission society working with the Anglican Communion, Protestant, and Orthodox Christians around the world. Founded in 1799, CMS has attracted over nine thousand men and women to serve as mission partners during its 200-year history. The society has also given its name "CMS" to a number of daughter organisations around the world.
The original proposal for the mission came from Charles Grant and George Uday of the East India Company and the Rev. David Brown, of Calcutta, who sent a proposal in 1787 to William Wilberforce, then a young member of parliament, and Charles Simeon, a young clergyman at Cambridge University. The Baptist Missionary Society was formed in 1792 and the London Missionary Society was formed in 1795 to represent various evangelical denominations.
The Society for Missions to Africa and the East (as the society was first called) was founded on 12 April 1799 at a meeting of the Eclectic Society, supported by members of the Clapham Sect, a group of activist evangelical Christians, who met under the guidance of John Venn, the Rector of Clapham. Their number included Charles Simeon, Basil Woodd, Henry Thornton, Thomas Babington and William Wilberforce. Wilberforce was asked to be the first president of the society, but he declined to take on this role and became a vice-president. The treasurer was Henry Thornton and the founding secretary was Thomas Scott, a biblical commentator. Many of the founders were also involved in creating the Sierra Leone Company and the Society for the Education of Africans.
In 1802 Josiah Pratt was appointed secretary, a position he held until 1824, becoming an early driving force in the CMS. The first missionaries went out in 1804. They came from the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg and had trained at the Berlin Seminary. The name Church Missionary Society began to be used and in 1812 the society was renamed The Church Missionary Society. The principal missions, the founding missionaries, and the dates of the establishment of the missions are:
- West Africa (1804): Melchior Renner and Peter Hartwig were sent to the Pongo River, the country of the Susu people in Guinea. The West Africa mission was extended to Sierra Leone (1816). Samuel Ajayi Crowther, a Yoruba by birth, was selected to accompany the missionary James Schön on the Niger expedition of 1841. Crowther (later appointed first African Anglican bishop in Nigeria) was the principal missionary to Yorubaland in 1844 and the Niger in 1857.
- West Indies (1813): The CMS started work in Antigua and expanded to other islands. By 1838 the CMS had congregations of 8,000, with 13 ordained missionaries, 23 lay teachers and 70 schools. In about 1848 a shortage of funds resulted in the CMS withdrawing from the West Indies.
- New Zealand (1814): The Revd Samuel Marsden became the chaplain of the penal colony at Paramatta, Australia in 1774. Samuel Marsden attempted to establish a mission in New Zealand in 1809, however it was not until 1814 that the CSM mission in New Zealand was established when Marsden officiated at its first service on Christmas Day in 1814, at Oihi Bay in the Bay of Islands.
- India (1814): William Carey, the founder of the Baptist Missionary Society was the pioneer of the Evangelical, Protestant missionary movement in India who arrived in 1793. The CMS Mission in India began in 1814 when 7 missionaries arrived: two were placed at Chennai (Madras), two at Bengal and three at Travancore (1816). The Indian missions were extended in the following years to a number of locations including Agra, Meerut district, Varanasi (Benares), Mumbai (Bombay) (1820), Tirunelveli (Tinnevelly) (1820), Kolkata (Calcutta) (1822), Telugu Country (1841) and the Punjab region (1852). While the Revolt of 1857 resulted in damage to the missions in the North West Provinces, after the revolt the CMS expanded its missions to Oudh, Allahbad, the Santhal people (1858), and to Kashmir (1865).
- Middle East (1815): The Revd William Jowett was appointed to commence the Mediterranean Mission, however the mission was only intermittently able to establish missions in Ottoman Turkey in 1819-21 as the result of resistance to the Christian faith by the Turkish authorities; an attempt in 1862 to open a mission station in Constantinople also failed.
- Sri Lanka (Ceylon) (1817): Four CMS missionaries were sent to Ceylon in 1817 and in the following 5 years mission stations were established at Kandy, Baddegama, Kottawa (Cotta) and Jaffna. In 1850 a mission station was established at Colombo.
- North West America Mission (Canada) (1822): The CMS provided financial assistance in 1820 to the Revd John West, chaplain to the Hudson’s Bay Company, towards the education of some Native American children, including James Settee of the Swampy Cree nation, Charles Pratt (Askenootow) and Henry Budd of the Cree nation. In 1822 the CMS appointed West to head the mission in what was then known as the Red River Colony in what is now the province of Manitoba. He was succeeded in 1823 by the Revd David Jones who was joined by the Revd W. Cockram and his wife in 1825. The mission worked among the Cree, Ojibwe, Chippewa, and Gwich'in (Tukudh) of the upper west Great Plains. The North West America Mission was extended to the people of the Blackfoot Confederacy in Saskatchewan (1840), the Cree and Inuit of Hudson Bay (1851), the Anishinaabe of Manitoba and towards the Arctic Circle to the Naskapi (Innu) (1858-1862).
- Egypt (1825) and Ethiopia (1827): Five missionaries were sent to Egypt in 1825. The CMS concentrated the Mediterranean Mission on the Coptic Church and in 1830 to its daughter Ethiopian Church, which included the creation of a translation of the Bible in Amharic at the instigation of William Jowett, as well as the posting of two missionaries to Ethiopia (Abyssinia), Samuel Gobat (later the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem) and Christian Kugler arrived in that country in 1827. The missionaries were expelled from Abyssinia in 1844 following the Siege of Khartoum and the death of General Gordon. The Egyptian Mission was abandoned by the CMS in 1862. The Egyptian Mission was revived in 1882 by Frederick Augustus Klein.
- Australia (1825): Rev. William Watson and Rev. Johann Simon Christian Handt arrived to establish the Wellington Valley Mission near to Wellington, New South Wales. However, because of drought and the lack of success of the mission, the CMS withdrew. In 1892 CMS Associations were set up in New South Wales and Victoria. In 1916 the Church Missionary Association of Australia was formed, which was later renamed the Church Missionary Society of Australia. By 1927 the CMS Australia was active in the Northern Territory, Australia, including in communities along the Roper River in the Katherine region.
- South Africa (1837): Captain Allen Francis Gardiner R.N. obtained the permission of Dingaan, a Zulu chief, to establish a CMS mission. Rev Francis Owen arriving in August 1837, followed by W. Hewetson and a surgeon, R. Philips. However, following armed conflict between the Zulus and the newly arrived Voortrekkers (Boers), the CMS abandoned the mission.
- East Africa (1844): The Revd Johann Ludwig Krapf was in Abyssinia, however when the missionaries were forced out he moved to Mombasa. CMS missionaries, such as Krapf and the Revd Johannes Rebmann, explored East and Central Africa, with Rebmann being the first European to reach Mount Kilimanjaro (1848) and Krapf was the first to reach Mount Kenya (1849). The East Africa Mission was revived in 1874 and extended to inland Kenya (Nyanza Province at Lake Victoria), Uganda (1876) and Tanganyika (1878). In 1877, Alexander Mackay established a mission in the historical kingdom of Buganda, now part of Uganda. On 29 October 1885, Kabaka Mwanga II had the incoming Anglican bishop James Hannington assassinated on the eastern border of his kingdom and he also ordered the execution of Christian converts among his people. Later the Uganda mission was centered at Kampala and was led by missionary brothers Albert Ruskin Cook and John Howard Cook. Missions were later established in Rwanda (1916-1919) and Burundi (1934) (the Mid-Africa Mission).
- China (1844): Robert Morrison, of the London Missionary Society established a mission in Guangzhou (Canton) in 1808. After the First Opium War, Hong Kong came under the control of Great Britain and ports on the mainland, including Canton and Shanghai, become open to Europeans. In 1844 the South China Mission was established by the Revd George Smith (later Bishop of Victoria, H.K.) and the Revd Thomas McClatchie at Shanghai.
- Palestine (1851): The Revd Frederick Augustus Klein arrived in Nazareth in 1851 where he lived for 5–6 years, then he moved to Jerusalem until 1877. In 1855 the Revd John Zeller was sent to Nablus. In 1857 he moved to Nazareth, where he stayed for the next 20 years, then he moved to Jerusalem.
- Mauritius (1854): Bishop Vincent W Ryan was appointed the bishop of Mauritius in 1854 and the same year the Revd David Fenn established a mission station.
- North Pacific Mission (British Columbia) (1857): William Duncan, a lay missionary, arrived at the remote Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) fort settlement at Lax Kw'alaams, British Columbia, then part of HBC's New Caledonia district and known as Fort Simpson or Port Simpson. His work included founding the Tsimshian communities of Metlakatla, British Columbia, in Canada, and Metlakatla, Alaska, in the United States. The Revd R. S. Tugwell joined the mission in October 1860. In the early 1870s the Revd William Collison served with Duncan in Metlakatla. Collison extended the work of the North Pacific Mission to the Haida people of the archipelago of Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands) in northern British Columbia. The Revd Robert Tomlinson, a medical missionary, re-established the Revd Robert A. Doolan's three-year-old Anglican mission among the Nisga'a people by relocating it from the lower Nass River to a newly established community, Kincolith (today known as Gingolx), at the mouth of the Nass River.
- Madagascar (1863): Two CMS missionaries operated a mission station from 1863 until their deaths in 1864.
- Tanzania (1864): The Universities' Mission to Central Africa and the Church Missionary Society began work in 1864 and 1878 at Mpwapwa. The Province was inaugurated in 1970 following the division of the Province of East Africa into the Province of Kenya and the Province of Tanzania.
- Japan (1868): The Revd George Ensor established a mission station at Nagasaki and in 1874 he was replaced by the Revd H Burnside. The same year the mission was expanded to include the Revd C. F. Warren at Osaka, the Revd Philip Fyson at Yokohama, the Revd J. Piper at Tokyo (Yedo), the Revd H. Evington at Niigata and the Revd W. Dening at Hokkaido. The Revd H. Maundrell joined the Japan mission in 1875 and served at Nagasaki. The Revd John Batchelor was a missionary to the Ainu people of Hokkaido from 1877 to 1941. Hannah Riddell arrived in Kumamoto, Kyūshū in 1891. She worked to establish the Kaishun Hospital (known in English as the Kumamoto Hospital of the Resurrection of Hope) for the treatment of Leprosy, with the hospital opening on 12 November 1895. Hannah Riddell left the CMS in 1900 to run the hospital.
- Iran (Persia) (1869): Henry Martyn visited Persia in 1811, however the Persian Mission was not established until 1869 when the Revd Robert Bruce established a mission station at Julfa in Ispahan. The mission in Persia expanded to include Kerman, Yezd (1893) and Shiraz (1900). After Bishop Edward Stuart resigned as the Bishop of Waiapu in New Zealand, he then served as a missionary in Julfa from 1894 to 1911.
- Iraq (1883): the CMS started work in Baghdad in 1883 and expanded to Mosul in 1901.
- Sudan (1899): Llewellyn Gwynne, Archibald Shaw and Dr Frank Harpur established mission stations in Northern Sudan at Omdurman (1899) and Khartoum (1900). The first station in Southern Sudan was established by Archibald Shaw at Malek, near Bor, South Sudan (1905).
From the beginning of the organisation until 1894 the total number of CMS missionaries amounted to 1,335 (men) and 317 (women). During this period the indigenous clergy ordained by the branch missions totalled 496 and about 5,000 lay teachers had been trained by the branch missions. In 1894 the active members of the CMS totaled: 344 ordained missionaries, 304 indigenous clergy (ordained by the branch missions) and 93 lay members of the CMS. As of 1894, in addition to the missionary work the CMS operated about 2,016 schools, with about 84,725 students.
In the first 25 years of the CMS nearly half the missionaries were Germans trained in Berlin and later from the Basel Seminary. The Church Missionary Society College, Islington opened in 1825 and trained about 600 missionaries; about 300 joined the CMS from universities and about 300 came from other sources. 30 CMS missionaries were appointed to the Episcopate, serving as bishops.
The CMS published The Church Missionary Gleaner, from April 1841 to September 1857. From 1813 to 1855 the society published The Missionary Register, "containing an abstract of the principal missionary and bible societies throughout the world". From 1816, "containing the principal transactions of the various institutions for propagating the gospel with the proceedings at large of the Church Missionary Society".
During the early 20th century, the society's theology moved in a more liberal direction under the leadership of Eugene Stock. There was considerable debate over the possible introduction of a doctrinal test for missionaries, which advocates claimed would restore the society's original evangelical theology. In 1922, the society split, with the liberal evangelicals remaining in control of CMS headquarters, whilst conservative evangelicals established the Bible Churchmen's Missionary Society (BCMS, now Crosslinks).
Notable general secretaries of the society later in the 20th century were Max Warren and John Vernon Taylor. The first woman president of the CMS, Diana Reader Harris, was instrumental in persuading the society to back the 1980 Brandt Report on bridging the North-South divide. In the 1990s CMS appointed its first non-British general secretary, Michael Nazir-Ali, who later became Bishop of Rochester in the Church of England, and its first women general secretary, Diana Witts.
In 1995 the name was changed to the Church Mission Society.
At the end of the 20th century there was a significant swing back to the Evangelical position, probably in part due to a review in 1999 at the anniversary and also due to the re-integration of Mid Africa Ministry (formerly the Ruanda Mission). The position of CMS is now that of an ecumenical Evangelical society.
In June 2007, CMS in Britain moved the administrative office out of London for the first time. It is now based in east Oxford.
In 2008, CMS was acknowledged as a mission community by the Advisory Council on the Relations of Bishops and Religious Communities of the Church of England. It currently has approximately 2,800 members who commit to seven promises, aspiring to live a lifestyle shaped by mission.
In 2010 CMS integrated with the South American Mission Society (SAMS).
In 2010 Church Mission Society launched the Pioneer Mission Leadership Training programme, providing leadership training for both lay people and those preparing for ordination as pioneer ministers. It is accredited by Durham University as part of the Church of England's Common Awards. In 2015 there were 70 students on the course, studying at certificate, diploma and MA level.
On 31 January 2016 Church Mission Society had 151 mission partners in 30 countries and 62 local partners in 26 countries (this programme supports local mission leaders in Asia, Africa and South America in "pioneer settings") serving in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East. In addition, 127 mission associates (affiliated to Church Mission Society but not employed or financially supported through CMS) and 16 short-termers. In 2015–16, Church Mission Society had a budget of £6.8 million, drawn primarily from donations by individuals and parishes, supplemented by historic investments.
The Church Mission Society Archive is housed at the University of Birmingham Special Collections.
- ???? to 1963: Max Warren
- 1963 to 1973: John Taylor
- 1975 to 1985: Simon Barrington-Ward
- 1989 to 1994: Michael Nazir-Ali
- 2000 to 2011: Tim Dakin
- October 2012 to present: Philip Mounstephen
- History of Christian missions
- Church Missionary Society in India
- Church Missionary Society in China
- New Zealand Church Missionary Society
- Church Missionary Society in the Middle East and North Africa
- Mounstephen, Philip (2015). "Teapots and DNA: The Foundations of CMS". Intermission. 22.
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (Church Missionary Society)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 210–219. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, February 1874". The Origin of the Church Missionary Society. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- Aston, Nigel. "Babington, Thomas". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/75363. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, August 1867". The Church Missionary Society (From the "American Church Missionary Register"). Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- Mouser, Bruce (2004). "African academy 1799-1806". History of Education. 33 (1).
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (Church Missionary Society)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. xi. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- Keen, Rosemary. "Church Missionary Society Archive". Adam Matthew Publications. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (Christianity in Africa)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 23–64. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- Marsden, Samuel. "The Marsden Collection". Marsden Online Archive. University of Otago. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (New Zealand)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 210–219. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (India)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 95–156. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (Middle East)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 67–76. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (Ceylon)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 163–168. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, March 1857". Missionary Work Around the Winnepegoosis Lake, Rupert's Land. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (Canada)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 220–226. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, September 1877". The Red Indians of the Saskatchewan. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, December 1853". The Eskimos (part 1). Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 23 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, December 1854". The Eskimos (part 2). Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 23 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, June 1877". The First Missionary to the Eskimos. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- Donald Crummey, Priests and Politicians, 1972, Oxford University Press (reprinted Hollywood: Tsehai, 2007), pp. 12, 29f. For an account of the society's Amharic translation, see Edward Ullendorff, Ethiopia and the Bible (Oxford: University Press for the British Academy, 1968), pp. 62–67 and the sources cited there.
- "History of the CMS-Australia". CMS Australia. 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- Moorehead, Alan (1963). "Chapter 16, Paradise Reformed". The White Nile. Penguin. ISBN 9780060956394.
- Kevin Ward, "A History of Christianity in Uganda" in Dictionary of African Christian Biography.
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (China)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 179–196. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (Mauritius)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 157–159. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (British Columbia)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 227–232. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, March 1861". First Letter from a New Missionary to British Columbia. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (Madagascar)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. p. 160. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "Anglican Church in Tanzania". Anglican Communion. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, September 1874". C.M.S. Missionaries in Japan. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, December 1874". Our Missionaries in Japan. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, May 1877". The Ainos of Japan. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (Japan)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 205–2009. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, January 1875". Appointment of Rev. H. Maundrell to Japan. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, May 1876". The New Mission to Persia. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner, February 1877". From London to Ispahan. Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 24 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Atlas (Persia)". Adam Matthew Digital. 1896. pp. 78–80. Retrieved 19 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- "The Church Missionary Gleaner". Church Missionary Society (1841-1857). Adam Matthew Digital. Retrieved 18 October 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- Mission Periodicals Online (Yale University)
- Stock 1923.
The more liberal CMS position may be compared with the attitude expressed in the preface to its 1904 English–Kikuyu Vocabulary, whose author, CMS member A. W. McGregor, complained of the difficulty in obtaining information about Kikuyu from "very unwilling and unintelligent natives" (McGregor 1904, p. iii).
- "Executive leader: Philip Mounstephen". Church Mission Society. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
- Church Mission Society Report and Accounts for the year ended 31 January 2016.
- Hewitt, Gordon, The Problems of Success, A History of the Church Missionary Society 1910–1942, Vol I (1971) In Tropical Africa. The Middle East. At Home ISBN 0-334-00252-4; Vol II (1977)Asia Overseas Partners ISBN 0-334-01313-5
- McGregor, A. W. (1904). English–Kikuyu Vocabulary. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
- Murray, Jocelyn (1985). Proclaim the Good News. A Short History of the Church Missionary Society. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-34501-2..
- Stock, Eugene (1899–1916). "The History of the Church Missionary Society: Its Environment, Its Men, and Its Work". 1–4. London: CMS.
- Stock, Eugene (1923). "The Recent Controversy in the C.M.S." (Reprinted from the Church Missionary Review ed.). London: CMS..
- Missionary Register; containing an abstract of the principal missionary and bible societies throughout the world. From 1816, containing the principal transactions of the various institutions for propagating the gospel with the proceedings at large of the Church Missionary Society. They were published from 1813–1855 by L. B. Seeley & Sons, London
- Some are online readable and downloadable at Google Books: