Irreligion in the United States
|Population in the United States:
Not religious or spiritual: 15%
Pew Research Center, 2012 and 2015
|Regions with significant populations|
|New England region, Western United States, Southern United States, Midwestern United States, Mid-Atlantic United States|
(including atheism, agnosticism, deism, skepticism, freethought/freethinker, secular humanism, ignosticism, apatheism, Nonbeliever, nontheism, rationalism)
Americans without a religious affiliation represent about 20% or more of the population and since the early 1990s, independent polls have shown their rapid growth. They include agnostics, atheists, deists,[e] secular humanists, and general secularists.
Unaffiliated Americans are sometimes referred to as "Nones". Though having no religion and not seeking religion they have diverse views: 68% believe in God, 12% are atheists, 17% are agnostics; in terms of self-identification of religiosity 18% consider themselves religious, 37% consider themselves as spiritual but not religious, and 42% considers themselves as neither spiritual nor religious; and 21% pray every day and 20% pray once a month. According to the 2008 ARIS, the Nones have diverse beliefs: 7% were atheist, 35% were agnostics, 24% were deists, and 27% were theists.
According to the Pew Research Center, in 2014, 22.8% of the American population does not identify with a religion, including atheists (3.1%) and agnostics (4%). According to the 2014 General Sociological Survey, 21% of the American population does not identify with a religion; furthermore, the number of atheists and agnostics in the U.S. has remained relatively flat in the past 23 years. In 1991, only 2% identified as atheist, and 4% identified as agnostic. In 2014, only 3% identified as atheists, and 5% identified as agnostics.
Self-identification among the Nones is also diverse. For instance, according to Pew study in 2009, only 5% of the total US population did not have a belief in a god. Out of all those without a belief in a god, only 24% self-identified as "atheist", while 15% self-identified as "agnostic", 35% self-identified as "nothing in particular", and 24% identified with a religious tradition. The Nones tend to be more politically liberal and their growth has resulted in some increases in membership of secular organizations. However, the overwhelming majority of those without religion are not joining secular groups or even aligning with secularism.
Some of the underlying factors in the increases in people identifying as "Nones" seem to not be that significant numbers of people are dropping religion, but rather that, in recent times, it has become more socially acceptable for younger and older generations to identify as a "None" than in previous decades, when identifying as having no religion carried negative stigmas. With young people usually having lower religious observance than older people and them feeling more comfortable identifying as a "None", generational replacement factors could play a role in the increment.
Younger generations as a whole have lost trust and belief in numerous institutions along with religion. For instance, Millennials, which make up about 1/3 the "Nones" demographic, tend to have less belief and trust in institutions such as the labor market, the economy, government and politics, marriage, the media, along with churches; than previous generations.
- 1 Studies on irreligion
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Trends
- 4 Tables
- 5 In politics
- 5.1 Irreligious elected officials
- 5.1.1 Agnostic elected officials
- 5.1.2 Atheist elected officials
- 5.1 Irreligious elected officials
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Studies on irreligion
A comprehensive study by David Campbell and Harvard University professor Robert Putnam found that religious Americans are three to four times more likely than their nonreligious counterparts to "work on community projects, belong to voluntary associations, attend public meetings, vote in local elections, attend protest demonstrations and political rallies, and donate time and money to causes -- including secular ones." However, religious Americans who regularly attend religious services but have no friends there do not have higher levels of civic participation, while nonreligious Americans who have religious friends do get more involved. "It's not faith" that accounts for civic activism, Putnam said, "It's faith communities." The authors said the same effect might be found in secular organizations that are close-knit with shared morals and values. The study also found that religious Americans are less tolerant than secular Americans of free speech, dissent, and several other measures of tolerance.
Being less religious is moderately correlated with increased life expectancy and decreased teenage pregnancy.
Alan Cooperman of Pew Research Center notes that nonreligious Americans commonly grew up in a religious tradition and consciously lost it "after a great deal of reflection and study". As a result, atheists and agnostics are more knowledgeable about religion than those who identify with most major religions, according to a 2010 Pew survey.
The American public at large has a positive view of nonreligious people but a negative view of atheists. One "extensive study of how Americans view various minority groups" found that "atheists are at the top of the list of groups that Americans find problematic." A Religion and Public Life Survey (2002) found that 54 percent of Americans have an unfavorable opinion of atheists, but the favorability of people who are "not religious" is 52.2%, with a net difference of 23.8%.
Inaccuracy of religious self-identification
The 2008 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) found a difference between how people identify and what people believe. While only 0.7% of U.S. adults identified as atheist, 2.3% said there is no such thing as a god. Only 0.9% identified as agnostic, but 10.0% said there is either no way to know if a god exists or they weren't sure. Another 12.1% said there is a higher power but no personal god. In total, only 15.0% identified as Nones or No Religion, but 24.4% did not believe in the traditional concept of a personal god. The conductors of the study concluded, "The historic reluctance of Americans to self-identify in this manner or use these terms seems to have diminished. Nevertheless ... the level of under-reporting of these theological labels is still significant ... many millions do not subscribe fully to the theology of the groups with which they identify."
Similarly, the 2012 Pew study reported that 23% of Americans who affiliated with a religion were not religious. The religiously affiliated were 79% of the population, and the unaffiliated were 19.6%, including 6% "atheist" or "agnostic".
A 2007 Barna group poll found that about 20 million people say they are atheist, have no religious faith, or are agnostic, with 5 million of that number claiming to be atheists. The study also found that "[t]hey tend to be more educated, more affluent and more likely to be male and unmarried than those with active faith" and that "only 6 percent of people over 60 have no faith in God, and one in four adults ages 18 to 22 describe themselves as having no faith."
A 2008 Gallup survey reported that religion is not an important part of daily life for 34% of Americans. In May of that year, a Gallup poll asking the question "Which of the following statements comes closest to your belief about God: you believe in God, you don't believe in God but you do believe in a universal spirit or higher power, or you don't believe in either?" showed that, nationally, 78% believed in God, 15% in "a universal spirit or higher power", 6% answering "neither", and 1% unsure. The poll also highlighted the regional differences, with residents in the Western states answering 59%, 29%, and 10% respectively, compared to the residents in the Southern states that answered 86%, 10%, and 3%. Several of the western states have been informally nicknamed Unchurched Belt, contrasting with the Bible Belt in the southern states.
A 2012 study by the Pew Research Center reported that, of the U.S. adult population, 19.6% had no religious affiliation and an additional 16% identified as "neither spiritual nor religious". Furthermore, atheists made up 2.4% and agnostics made up 3.3% of the US population. It also notes that a third of adults under the age of 30 are religiously unaffiliated. However, out of the religiously unaffiliated demographic: the majority describe themselves either as a religious (18%) or as spiritual but not religious (37%) while a significant minority (42%) considers themselves neither spiritual or religious. Additionally, out of the unaffiliated: 68% believe in God, 12% are atheists, 17% are agnostics and overall 21% of the religiously unaffiliated pray every day.
The Pew Religious Landscape survey reported that as of 2014, 22.8% of the U.S. population is religiously unaffiliated, atheists made up 3.1% and agnostics made up 4% of the U.S. population. The 2014 General Social Survey reported that 21% of Americans had no religion with 3% being atheist and 5% being agnostic.
In 1776, only 17% of the US population was religiously involved in America and by 2000, the number of people who were religiously involved had actually increased gradually to 62%.
According to the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) report, in 1990 only 8.2% of the US population identified as "no religion", atheists were not detectable, and agnostics made up 0.7% of the US population. By 2001, 14.1% of the US population identified as "no religion", atheists made up 0.4% and agnostics made up 0.5% of the US population. By 2008, 15% of the US population identified as "no religion", atheists made up 0.7% and agnostics made up 0.9% of the US population.
According to the 2014 General Social Survey the percentages of the US population that identified as no religion were 21% in 2014, 20% in 2012, just 14% in 2000, and only 8 percent in 1990. Furthermore, the number of atheists and agnostics in the US has remained relatively flat in the past 23 years since in 1991 only 2% identified as atheist and 4% identified as agnostic while in 2014 only 3% identified as atheist and 5% identified as agnostic.
According to the 2008 Pew Religious Landscape report, as 2007, 16.1% of the US population identified as "no religion", atheists made up 1.6% and agnostics made up 2.4% of the US population.
According to a 2012 Pew Report on the "Nones", 19.6% of the population identified as "no religion", atheists made up 2.4% and agnostics made up 3.3% of the US population.
The Pew Religious Landscape survey reported that as of 2014, 22.8% of the American population is religiously unaffiliated, atheists made up 3.1% and agnostics made up 4% of the US population.
The General Sociological Survey reported that as of 2014, 21% of the American population does not identify with a religion, including 3% identifying as atheists and 5% identifying as agnostics (5%).
A 2010 Pew Research Center study comparing Millennials to other generations showed that of those between 18–29 years old, only 3% self-identified as "atheists" and only 4% as "agnostics". Overall, 25% of Millennials were "Nones" and 74% were religiously affiliated. Though Millennials are less religious than previous generations at the same age frame, they are also much less engaged in many social institutions in general than previous generations.
Several groups promoting secularist beliefs or opposing religious faith altogether – including the Freedom From Religion Foundation, American Atheists, Camp Quest, and the Rational Response Squad – have witnessed large increases in membership numbers in recent years, and the number of secularist student organizations at American colleges and universities increased during the 2000s (decade). However, the growth of atheist groups is very limited and will possibly shrink due to atheists normally being non-joiners and some atheist organizations being too "religious" like. Phil Zuckerman notes that the overwhelming majority of the nonreligious in the US are not identifying with secular movements or secularism or secular beliefs and instead live basic mundane lives without much thought of the secular. As such, the overwhelming majority on the nonreligious do not join secular groups. Only a very small minority of the nonreligious, around 1% to 2%, actually join these kinds of groups.
When looking at countries which have high levels of atheism such as Scandinavian nations, atheist organizations there generally have very low membership and only those that have links to a political party or offer legalized rituals have some noticeable membership.
In an annual survey, 34% ± 0.9% SE was found to be religiously unaffiliated in 2017, up by 2% ± 1.3% SE from 2016. This is significantly higher than the findings in the 2014 Pew survey of 22.8% ± 0.2% SE, and in a 2016 PRRI survey of 24%, which both indicate that the unaffiliated have been increasing by about 1.0% per year in this timeframe. Additionally, a 2017 Pew survey finds that 45% does not consider themselves religious, even though they may often consider themselves associated with a major religion and/or "spiritual". This was an increase by 10% with respect to 2012. Similar findings of 40% were reported in 2012 in a Win-Gallup poll, an increase of 13% with respect to 7 years earlier.
Various beliefs and practices of the Nones in 2012.
|Traits||% Nones (2012)|
|Believe in God||68%|
|Consider themselves religious||18%|
|Consider themselves spiritual but not religious||37%|
|Consider themselves as neither spiritual nor religious||42%|
|Pray every day||21%|
|Pray once a month||21%|
Irreligion by state
|Rank||Jurisdiction||% "Nones" (2007)||% "Nones" (2014)|
|19||District of Columbia||18%||24%|
Irreligion by territory
Territories of the United States with percentage of population claiming no religion in 2010.
|Territories||% Nones (2010)|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||3.8% or 3.7%|
|Northern Mariana Islands||1%|
Irreligion by region
Regions of the United States ranked by percentage of population claiming no religion in 2014.
|Region||% Nones (2014)|
Demographics of the religiously unaffiliated in 2012 (as fraction of the named groups).
According to exit polls in the 2008 presidential election, 71% of non-religious whites voted for Democratic candidate Barack Obama while 74% of white Evangelical Christians voted for Republican candidate John McCain. This can be compared with the 43–55% share of white votes overall. More than six-in-ten religiously unaffiliated registered voters are Democrats (39%) or lean toward the Democratic Party (24%). They are about twice as likely to describe themselves as political liberals than as conservatives, and solid majorities support legal abortion (72%) and same-sex marriage (73%). In the last five years, the unaffiliated have risen from 17% to 24% of all registered voters who are Democrats or lean Democratic. According to a Pew Research exit poll 70% of those who were religiously unaffiliated voted for Barack Obama.
In January 2007, California Congressman Pete Stark became the first openly atheist member of Congress. He described himself as "a Unitarian who does not believe in a Supreme Being." In January 2013, Kyrsten Sinema became the first openly non-theist Congresswoman, representing the State of Arizona. Although she "believes the terms 'nontheist', 'atheist' or 'nonbeliever' are not befitting of her life's work or personal character," she does believe in a secular approach to government. Her unbelief "was not used to slander her as un-American or suggest that she was unfit for office."
On January 20, 2009, Barack Obama became the first U.S. President to acknowledge "non-believers" in his inaugural address, although other presidents such as George W. Bush have previously acknowledged non-believers in different speeches.
The 2012 study by the Pew Research Center reported that unaffiliated Americans say by a margin of 39% that churches should keep out of political matters. Affiliated Americans agree by a margin of 7%.
Irreligious elected officials
Agnostic elected officials
Former United States senators
Former state governors
Atheist elected officials
Former United States senators
Former United States representatives
- Pete Stark (Democratic), Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from California's 13th district, 9th district, and 8th district
- Barney Frank (Democratic), Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts's 4th district
Former state governors
- Culbert Olson (Democratic), 29th Governor of California
- Jesse Ventura (Reform/Independence), 38th Governor of Minnesota
Current state legislators
Former state legislators
- Culbert Olson (Democratic), Utah Senator
- Culbert Olson (Democratic), California Senator
- Barney Frank (Democratic), Massachusetts Representative from the 8th and 5th Suffolk district
- Lori Lipman Brown (Democratic), Nevada Senator
- Sean Faircloth (Democratic), Maine Representative from the 17th and 117th district
- Sean Faircloth (Democratic), Maine Senator from the 9th district
- Jesse Ventura (Independent), Mayor of Brooklyn Park, Minnesota
- Rocky Anderson (Democratic), 33rd Mayor of Salt Lake City
Current city council members
Former city council members
- Claims to be the fastest-growing religion
- Discrimination against atheists in the United States
- Ethical movement
- First Amendment to the United States Constitution
- Irreligion in Latin America
- Religion in the United States
- Religious skepticism
- Secular humanism
- Pew further subdivides Protestant into Evangelical Protestant (25.4%), Mainline Protestant (14.7%), and historically Black Protestant (6.5%).
- Pew includes in other Christian, Jehovah's Witnesses (0.8%), Orthodox Christian (0.5%), everyone else (0.4%)
- Pew includes in other religions, Sikhs, Baha'is, Jains, Taoists, Unitarians, New Age religions, Native American religions, etc.
- Pew includes in unaffiliated atheists (3.1%), agnostics (4.0%), and nothing (15.8%)
- While religious in the sense of acquiring "a knowledge of the Creator through reason alone", deists promote secularism and are not part of any organized religion.
- Cary Funk, Greg Smith. "Nones on the Rise: One-in-Five Adults Have No Religious Affiliation" (PDF). Pew Research Center. pp. 9, 42.
- "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.
- Frank, Newport (28 January 2009). "State of the States: Importance of Religion". Gallup. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
- Barry A. Kosmin and Ariela Keysar, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-08., March 2009, American Religious Identification Survey [ARIS 2008], Trinity College.
- "'Nones' on the Rise". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. October 9, 2012.
- Schultz, Jeffrey et al. Encyclopedia of Religion in American Politics, p. 73 (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999).
- Kosmin, Barry et al. American Religious Identification Survey, The Graduate Center of the City University of New York (2001). Accessed 2013-09-26.
- "American Nones: The Profile of the No Religion Population" (PDF). American Religious Identification Survey. 2008. Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- Hunter, Jeannine. "Who are the 'Nones'™?". Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
- "Religion and the Unaffiliated". "Nones" on the Rise. Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. October 9, 2012.
- "Most of the Religiously Unaffiliated Still Keep Belief in God". Pew Research Center. November 15, 2012.
- Kosmin, Barry; Keysar, Ariela (2009). "American Nones: The Profile of the No Religion Population" (PDF). Trinity Colloge.
- Hout, Michael; Smith, Tom (March 2015). "Fewer Americans Affiliate with Organized Religions, Belief and Practice Unchanged: Key Findings from the 2014 General Social Survey" (PDF). General Social Survey. NORC.
The percentage answering 'no religion' was 21 percent in 2014, 20 percent in 2012, just 14 percent as recently as 2000, and only 8 percent in 1990." & "In 2014, 3 percent of Americans did not believe in God and 5 percent expressed an agnostic view; the comparable percentages were 2 percent and 4 percent in 1991. More people believed in a 'higher power' in 2014 (13%) than in 1991 (7%).
- "Not All Nonbelievers Call Themselves Atheists | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project". Pewforum.org. 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Zuckerman, Phil (2014). Living the Secular Life: New Answers to Old Questions. [S.l.]: Penguin Books. ISBN 1594205086.
- Gregory, Smith (September 14, 2016). "The factors driving the growth of religious 'nones' in the U.S". Pew Research Center.
- Masci, David (January 8, 2016). "Q&A: Why Millennials are less religious than older Americans". Pew Research Center.
- Burke, Daniel (May 14, 2009). "Religious citizens more involved -- and more scarce?". USA Today. Retrieved Jun 1, 2014.
The scholars say their studies found that religious people are three to four times more likely to be involved in their community. They are more apt than nonreligious Americans to work on community projects, belong to voluntary associations, attend public meetings, vote in local elections, attend protest demonstrations and political rallies, and donate time and money to causes including secular ones. At the same time, Putnam and Campbell say their data show that religious people are just "nicer": they carry packages for people, don't mind folks cutting ahead in line and give money to panhandlers.
- Campbell, David; Putnam, Robert (14 November 2010). "Religious people are 'better neighbors'". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
- "The Importance of Religion". 21 February 2009. Daily Kos. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
- Treharne, Trevor (2012). How to Prove God Does Not Exist: The Complete Guide to Validating Atheism. p. 198.
- Landsberg, Mitchell (28 September 2010). "Atheists, agnostics most knowledgeable about religion, survey says". Los Angeles Times.
- "How Ignorant About Religion Are Religious Americans?". Patheos.com. 2010-09-27. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- Edgell, Penny. 2003. "In Rhetoric and Practice: Defining ˜The Good Family™ in Local Congregations." pp. 164–78 In Handbook of the Sociology of Religion, edited by Michele Dillon, Cambridge University Press.
- Religion and Public Life Survey. 2002. opinion of atheists (last accessed 2013-05-14).
- Religion and Public Life Survey. 2002. Opinion of non-religious people (last accessed 2013-05-14).
- "Losing Our Religion: The Growth of the 'Nones'". NPR.org. NPR. 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2016-12-01.
- Salmon, Jacqueline. "In America, Nonbelievers Find Strength in Numbers", Washington Post (September 15, 2007).
- Newport, Frank (July 28, 2008). "Belief in God Far Lower in Western U.S". Gallup. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
- Cary Funk, Greg Smith. "Nones" on the Rise: One-in-Five Adults Have No Religious Affiliation" (PDF). Pew Research Center. p. 43.
All told, about two-thirds of U.S. adults (65%) describe themselves as religious (either in addition to be being spiritual or not). Nearly one-in-five say they are spiritual but not religious (18%), and about one-in-six say they are neither religious nor spiritual (15%).
- Finke, Roger; Stark, Rodney (2006). The Churching of America, 1776-2005: Winners and Losers in our Religious Economy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. pp. 22, 23. ISBN 0813535530.
- "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 2008.
- "Religion Among the Millennials". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Gorski, Eric (November 24, 2009). "Atheist student groups flower on college campuses". USA Today. The Associated Press. Retrieved Jun 3, 2014.
- Zuckerman, Phil, ed. (2010). "Ch. 9 Atheism And Secularity: The Scandinavian Paradox". Atheism and Secularity Vol.2. Praeger. ISBN 0313351813.
- "'Nones' are now the biggest religious group in the US - with families torn on priorities". www.christiantoday.com. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
- "DN American Family Survey 2017". DeseretNews.com. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
- "America's Changing Religious Identity". PRRI. Retrieved 2017-12-16.
- "More Americans now say they're spiritual but not religious". Pew Research Center. 2017-09-06. Retrieved 2017-12-16.
- "BBC News – Viewpoints: Why is faith falling in the US?". BBC Online. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
- "The Association of Religion Data Archives | National Profiles". Thearda.com. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- http://globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/u-s-virgin-islands#/?affiliations_religion_id=0&affiliations_year=2010 Globalreligiousfutures.org. U.S. Virgin Islands. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/puerto-rico/religious_demography#/?affiliations_religion_id=0&affiliations_year=2010 Globalreligiousfutures.org. Puerto Rico. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/guam/religious_demography#/?affiliations_religion_id=0&affiliations_year=2010 Globalreligiousfutures.org. Guam. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "The Association of Religion Data Archives | National Profiles". Thearda.com. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/northern-mariana-islands#/?affiliations_religion_id=0&affiliations_year=2010 Globalreligiousfutures.org. Northern Mariana Islands. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/american-samoa#/?affiliations_religion_id=0&affiliations_year=2010 Globalreligiousfutures.org. American Samoa. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "'No Religion' on the Rise: One-in-Five Adults Have No Religious Affiliation". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 9 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-19.
- CNN Exit polls
- Oppenheimer, Mark (November 9, 2012). "Politicians Who Reject Labels Based on Religion". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-28.
- An inaugural first: Obama acknowledges 'non-believers'
- "Bush, like Obama, acknowledged non-believers". USA Today. 2009-01-22. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- Bruni, Frank (10 December 2012). "The God Glut". New York Times. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- "Real Time with Bill Maher Episode #149 April 10, 2009". www.veoh.com.
- Stark called himself "a Unitarian who does not believe in a supreme being" and has been identified as an atheist. Rep. Stark applauded for atheist outlook: Believed to be first congressman to declare nontheism, Associated Press, March 13, 2007 (Accessed June 15, 2007)
- Wong, Curtis (2013-08-09). "Barney Frank's 'Pot-Smoking Atheist' Revelation Discussed On 'The Rubin Report'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
- The Hon. Atheist Governor: Culbert L. Olson Archived September 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Jesse Ventura Says "I'm An Atheist"".
- Jesse Ventura said, "I'm an atheist" on CNN's "Piers Morgan Tonight", 17 September 2012.
- Hammel, Paul. "Ernie Chambers targets 'so help me God' in oaths". Omaha World-Herald. Archived from the original on September 4, 2013. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- ""You can be elected as an openly gay politician in this country, but you can't be elected as an openly atheistic one", said Lori Lipman Brown, who was hired last fall to be the Washington, D.C., lobbyist for an organization devoted to atheist causes, the Secular Coalition for America. She's believed to be the first paid lobbyist for the unbelievers in the nation's capital, the front lines of the culture wars. Now, all Brown is seeking is a constituency willing to go public. "Think of where the LGBT movement was 25 years ago", said Brown, who has worked on gay and lesbian rights issues as a legislator and attorney. "That's where atheists are today." […] Brown, who is married and was raised a "humanistic Jew", talks about how she "came out" as an atheist several years ago, and how most atheists aren't "out yet" at work. She says atheist kids—like many gay children—are made to feel outcasts at school, and explains that she wants to erase the negative connotation to the word "atheist" just as homosexuals have reclaimed slurs like "queer" and "dyke."" Joe Garofoli, 'Atheists hoping to assert rights in religious era', San Francisco Chronicle, February 20, 2006 (accessed June 16, 2008).
- Atheists Speak Up - Sean Faircloth Part 1 of 4 (episode #33)
- Obituary: "He had many friends across a wide spectrum of economic, social and religious backgrounds, all of whom he respected and honored. While Carolyn [his wife] was a devoted Presbyterian, he was a 'nontheist, '"
- Richard Dawkins, "Secularism, the Founding Fathers and the religion of America", in The God Delusion, Black Swan, 2007 (ISBN 978-0-552-77429-1).
- None of the above: the growth of the “non-religious”, Derek Michaud (2009)