Manu propria

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Example of medieval manu propria

Manu propria is a Latin phrase in the ablative case meaning "(signed) with one's own hand". In its abbreviated form (m.p.), it is sometimes used at the end of typewritten or printed documents or official notices right after the name of the person(s) who "signed" the document exactly in those cases when there is no handwritten signature there.

It is also found in several ancient documents in front of or after the writers signation at the end of the document.

Ordinary personal checks frequently include the abbreviation at the end of the signature line.

Richly decorated manu propria was frequently used by medieval dignitaries and literates to verify authenticity of hand written documents.

Later, official documents were routinely accompanied with this abbreviation, for example declaration of war on Serbia by Emperor Franz Joseph from 1914 ends with m.p..

Countries which still use "Manu propria" are:

  • Albania in official documents in an Albanian variation: d.v. (dora vetë)
  • the Czech Republic in a Czech variation: v. r. (vlastní rukou)[1] or occasionally in Latin variation m.p.
  • Hungary in official documents in a Hungarian variation s.k. (sajátkezűleg).
  • the Slovak Republic in a Slovak variation: v. r. (vlastnou rukou)
  • Germany using the German variation: <gez.> (gezeichnet), c.f. [2]

Usage in the 18th century[edit]

mppria was commonly used in the 18th century. However, it was not only used for Latin documents.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ See e.g. Czech Technical Norm ČSN 01 6910 6910:2007 Úprava písemností zpracovaných textovými editory, c.f. Online Language Handbook in Czech
  2. ^ Refer to entry in corresponding German Wikipedia article, [1]
  3. ^ Early Music, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Oct., 1982), pp. 496 and footnote nr. 5: 5The contraction of manu propria and of the date is usual
  4. ^ Diploma Nobilitatis Andrea Falquet