V850

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The V850 CPU cores
Produced From 1991 to current
Common manufacturer(s)
  • Renesas Electronics
    (formerly NEC)
Max. CPU clock rate 32 kHz to 320 MHz
Min. feature size 0.8 μm to 40 nm
Instruction set V800 Series
Microarchitecture V810 (1991),
V850 (1994),
V850E (1996),
V850E1 (1999),
V850ES (2002),
V850E2 (2004),
V850E1F (2005),
V850E2v2 (FIX ME),
V850E2v3 (2010),
V850E2v3S (2011),
V850E2v4 (2010),
V850E3v5 (2014)
Cores configurable
L1 cache configurable
Instructions v850: 74
v850e: 81
v850e1: 80 (83)
v850e1f: 96
v850e2: 89
v850e2v3: 98
Extensions
  • E/E1/E1F/E2/
    E2M/E2S/E3
Data width 32
Address width 32
Predecessor "V80" CISC core
Application Embedded,
Mobile equipments,
Air conditioner,
Automotive
Variant V850 Family,
RH850 Family

V850 is the trademark name for a 32-bit RISC CPU architecture of Renesas Electronics for embedded microcontrollers, introduced in early 90's by NEC and still being developed as of 2018.

Overview[edit]

The V850 is the trademark name for a 32-bit RISC CPU architecture for embedded microcontrollers of Renesas Electronics Corporation. It is originally developed and manufactured by NEC Corporation in early 90's ([1][2], copyright mark for the microcode on the package shows ©1991) as a branch of the V800 Series[3]:97,PDF103 and still being evolved until today.[4]

Its base-architecture is succeeded by the V850 Family variants named V850E, V850E1, V850ES[5], V850E1F, V850E2, V850E2M, V850E2S, and the RH850 Family (V850E2M, V850E2S, and V850E3) CPU cores.

Many compilers and debuggers are available from various development tool vendors.

Real-time operating systems are provided by compiler vendors.

In-circuit emulators (ICE) are provided by many vendors. Legacy prove pod based type, the JTAG based the N-Wire interface with the N-trace type, and the Nexus interface with the Aurora Trace type, are available.

Application systems[edit]

SONY Optiark AD‑7240S employs V850ES core based SoC; SCOMBO 8 in multi-chip packaging (MC-10045)
μPD70F3017GC‑25; V850/SA1 marked "EL4" on Quantum Fireball EL51A881
NEC's mobile phone; N504iS employs SoC; based on V850E, the only CPU on it

The first V850 CPU core was used for many DVD drives manufactured by NEC Corporation and Sony Optiarc, then Optiarc.[6][7] NEC Electronics (currently Renesas Electronics) itself intensively developed ASSP products for optical disk drives named SCOMBO® Series.[8][9] This first generation processor core was also used for hard disk drives manufactured by Quantum Corporation (see the photo).

The V850/xxn product line, started with V850/SA1[10] and V850/SV1[11] expanded its application to ultra-lo-power products such as "handy camcorders." Its has main and sub internal oscillator working from 1.8V to 3.6V with external resonator, such as crystal and ceramic.[10] Software STOP mode, which internal watch timer operates at 32.768 kHz sub-oscillator stand-by, consumes typically 8μA of electrical current only.[12][13] NEC also launched V850/SB1[14] for car audio with IEBus controller in 1998, which is ultra-low power (3.6mW@5V/MIPS) and ultra-low noise (EMI/EMS) 5V product.[15] And V850/SC1[16] was also for "car audio".[17] These strategical product line expansion well succeeded to enlarge the number of sold devices.

This first generation of V850 core is also used for some NEC's mobile phones.[18] It is also for the programmable host CPU of some small form factor (design) "GSM/GPRS with GPS" embedded modem modules.[19]

In the next phase, NEC targeted "automotive industry" with CAN bus controller on V850 as V850/SF1 at last.[20] The "automotive industry" became the main target of V850 and RH850 later on.

The V850E core targeted SoC as well as standard products,[21][22] used for some Japanese domestic mobile phones, including Sony Mobile's and NEC's.[23][24][25][26][27] V850E is also used for air conditioning inverter compressors.[28][29][30] The V850ES core succeeded low power embedded product line,[31] which is ISA compatible with V850E.

Around 2005, feasibility study for FlexRay controller on V850E platform had been started in several companies. Yokogawa Digital Computer (currently DTS INSIGHT) developed evaluation board named GT200; with a V850E/IA1 and a FPGA, which employs FlexRay controller developed by Bosh.[32]:78,PDF80

The V850E2 core primary targeted automotive areas,[33] but was also used for NEC's mobile phones.[34]

Current V850 Family line up (including Renesas RH850 Family, based on V850E3 core, as of 2018) covers mainly automotive applications as well as connectivity and motor-control specific MCUs. The V850 Family (based on V850E, V850ES, and V850E2 cores) and the RH850 Family (based on V850E3 core, as of 2018) are used in automotive industry comprehensively.[35][36]

Trademark strategy[edit]

The V850 is a trademark but not a registered trademark.[37] NEC once applied it to the Japan Patent Office, but it was rejected for registration.[38][39] But this action has enough effect to prevent some other people or organization registering it as the trademark. In addition Renesas (formerly NEC) has been using the V850X/xxn type trademark, such as V850E/MA1, for more than 20 years, because the combination of 1 alphabet with 2 numerical string can not be accepted as the "registered" trademark. So, it is free to use without any registrations, and no one can blame it.

According to the current Renesas Electronics' documentation, at least the following strings are insisted as its trademark. "V800 Series," "V850 Family," "V850/SA1," "V850/SB1," "V850/SB2," "V850/SF1," "V850/SV1," "V850E/MA1," "V850E/MA2," "V850E/IA1," "V850E/IA2," "V850E/MS1," "V850E/MS2," "V851," "V852," "V853," "V854," "V850," "V850E," and "V850ES."[40][37]

Because the V850 trademark has been used for more than 20 years, most of people does not know that the RH850 Family is based on V850 instruction set architecture extension, and has backward compatibility with V850, V850E, V850ES, and V850E2. The RH850 is thought as a new face without huge legacy software assets of V850.[41][42]

Basic architecture[edit]

The basis of V810 and V850 is a typical load/store architecture.[43]:4 Original V850 has simple 5-stage 1-clock pitch pipeline.[40]:114-126 These are the significant feature of RISC; reduced instruction set computers. But object code size is about the half of that of MIPS R3000.[43]:5 The reason is V810 and V850 adopt 16-bit and 32-bit 2-way uniform length instruction format,[43]:17[40]:38-40[44]:29-30 and the most of frequently used instructions are mapped into 16-bit half-word. In other words, 16-bit external bus width is relatively enough to provide instructions continuously without pipeline stalling, which enables low power consumption on the application board, and is suitable for mobile equipments.

Function call with Jump and (Register) Link instruction,[43]:20[44]:64[40]:61 which save next PC on the register (fixed to R31 in V810), is also one of the RISC technique to reduce the number of instructions. Return from the function can be done by jmp [Rn] (jmp [R31] in V810) instruction.[43]:23[44]:65[40]:61 Typical CISC processors use call & return instructions and push the next PC on the stack memory.

But V810 and V850 has some microarchitecture differences. V810 adopt microprogram operation method for some instructions; floating point arithmetic and bit strings operations, while V850 is a hundred percent hardwired control medhod. As the result, for example, the first V850 does not have floating-point arithmetic and bit-string operations.

Though V800 Series adopt RISC instruction set architecture, its assembly language is hand-coding friendly. They adopt straight forward load/store architecture.[43]:4 In addition, the "interlock" mechanism both for the data hazards and for the branch hazards are implemented,[43]:33-35 in other words, assembly language programmer does not need to consider any delay slots. 32 general-purpose registers provide flexibility for assembly language users. Mixture of hand-assembled codes and C language compiled codes is available by using compiler options, such as "-mno-app-regs" in Gnu Compiler Collection.[45]

It is a little bit pity that IN instruction of V810 is removed from the first V850, which enables unsigned-load from memory.[43]:22[44]:63

Detailed discussion is available in some old journals. [46][47]

Microarchitecture extension[edit]

(Under construction)

In 1998, NEC strategically started to expand V850 product line both in standard and ASSP business; and in ASIC and SoC business.[48]

In 2001, NEC launched V850ES core, which is ultra-low-power series, but is ISA compatible with V850E.[49]

Java Acceleration IP core for V850 seemed to be provided to some customers as SoC,[50] but detailed information is in some patents only.[51][52]

In 2011, Rnesas disclosed SIMD extension for V850 as V850E2H.[53] As for SIMD extension, some academic studies was done.[54] But no architectural documentation is not disclosed for this latest product line in Rnesas' web site.[55] Its name seems to be changed to V850E3 or G3H.

Power consumption[edit]

(under construction)

The original V810 and V850 CPU architecture is designed for ultra-low power applications.

Detailed description of the V810 is described in some journals.[56][57]

The V810 operates at from 2.2V to 5.5V with 5V 0.8μm (CZ4) fabrication process,[58] which power dissipation with Dhrystone MIPS are 500mW with 15MIPS and 40mW with 6MIPS at 5V and 2.2V, respectively. It is one of the most low power 32-bit microcontroller product in early 90's. This specification can be achieved both by well considered instruction set architecture and by precisely tuned 5-stage 1-clock pitch pipeline microarchitecture, both of them are the benefit of the simplified RISC feature.

This ultra-low power DNA is succeeded by V850/Sxn product line, those are still alive in mass production over 20+ years. Most of them are produced with 3.3V 0.35μm (UC1) fabrication process, which CPU core is precisely tuned to operate from 1.8V to 3.6V, working at 32.768 kHz (sub-osc.) to 16.78 MHz (main-osc.) with internal oscillator plus external resonator (crystal or ceramic).[59] Its power dissipation is 2.7mW/MIPS for 3.3V 0.35μm (UC1) fabrication process, and 3.6mW/MIPS for 5V 0.35μm (CZ6) fabrication process. "Software STOP" stand-by mode of V850/SA1, which internal watch timer operates at 32.768 kHz sub-oscillator, consumes typically 8μA electrical current only.[60][61] The V850/Sxn product line is also tuned for low noise both with EMI and with EMS.

In 2011, NEC launched 3rd generation microarchitecture V850ES ultra-low-power series, which insists 1.43mW/MIPS at operating voltage range from 2.2V to 2.7V.[62]


The power consumption of NA85E2 (V850E2) core is much larger compared with NU85E (V850E1) core in the same CB-12L (UX4L)[63][58] fabrication process. In addition, the wave amplitude of the electric current is also too wide for the voltage stabilizer of mobile gadgets. Some of mobile equipments avoid to use dual-instruction (dual-pipeline superscalar) executing., i.e. adopting with single-instruction (single-pipeline) execution setting to reduce electrical current amplitude.

Development story[edit]

V810 mounted on PC‑FXGA (in Japanese)[64] Gaming Accelerator board.
Marked as "©NEC 1991."
Nintendo Virtual Boy employed customized V810. 14x20mm2 packge (on left) is marked "©NEC '91, '93."

Because the V850 Family[40] is developed as a branch of V800 Series,[3]:97,PDF103 the basic CPU architecture is inherited from V810.[65] Instruction set architecture of the first V850 is slightly modified from that of V810, but the difference is within a patch level for GNU Compiler Collection.[66]

Detailed design methodology is described in a journal.[67]

The register-transfer level "CPU architecture design" of the V810 is developed with the Functional Description Language (FDL)[68][69][70] on the Falcon Simulator, those are NEC's in-house CAD tools. This methodology is the same as that of NEC V60.[71] In late 80's, the Verilog HDL has not acquired by Cadence Design Systems yet.[72] The FDL had been used until middle of 00's, and was also used for the development of NEC's super-computer; named Earth Simulator.[73]

The difference from V60 is that the circuit diagram was written with schematic editor, not of Calma, but of Mentor Graphics called NETED,[74] a part of the Design Architect product[75][76] on Apollo Computer, which is the most major schematic editor at that moment.[77] It enabled to generate netlists, such as EDIF and SPICE, for LVS program like cadence's Dracura products, and NEC in-house and Zycad netlist for logic simulation. Later on, this circuit diagram of NETED became able to generate gate-level Verilog HDL netlist for V850.

For most of the register-transfer level FDL netlist was translated to the gate-level schematic by hand, because the logic synthesis has not yet to be practical use at that moment. The FDL was divided into datapath and random logic precisely. For the datapath part, the gate-level circuit diagram enabled manually repeated artwork. On the other hand, for the random logic part, logic synthesis was tried to use for generating geta-level schematic, but it was about 10% of the total circuit.

In addition, formal verification has also not to be practical use yet, which meas full regression test by dynamic simulation is required for gate-level netlist to compare with RTL one. Sometimes hardware emulator, such as Zycad LE simulation accelerator,[78] is used for this purpose.

List of the V800 Series CPU cores[edit]

CPU core Product variants GCC targeting options[79] Remarks
V810[1]
(1991)
V810 Family
(V810, V805
 V820, V821[80])
Revert patch required.[66]
Available on Planet Virtual Boy.
GCC named gccVB.
Obsoleted products.
Unsigned & signed load.
μcoded float (single)[81]
5-stage pipeline.[82]
6.7mW/MIPS (5V Product)
V810
(1997)
V830 Family
(V830 — V832[83])
ditto Obsoleted products.
High end products.
Multimedia extension.
V850
(1994)
V850 Family started
V851 — V852[84]
V853[85][86], V854
none or -mv850 Obsoleted products.
5-stage pipeline.
4.4mW/MIPS (5V product)
V850
(1997)
V850/xxn
(e.g. V850/SA1)
none or -mv850 Not for new developments.
Signed load.
1.15 Dhrystone MIPS/MHz
Ultra-low power products.
3.6mW/MIPS (5V product)
2.7mW/MIPS (3.3V product)
V850E
(1996)
V850E/MS1[87][88],
V850E/MS2
-mv850e Not for new developments.
Unsigned & signed load.
1.3 Dhrystone MIPS/MHz
Standard products.
V850E1
(1999)
V850E/xxn
(e.g. V850E/MA1[21])
NB85E SoC core[89][90]
NU85E SoC core[89][90]
(SONY's & NEC's best-cellular.)
-mv850e1 or ‑mv850es Unsigned & signed load.
N-Wire and N-Trace.
Standard products.
SoC Products.
V850ES
(2002)
V850ES/xxn(-x)
(e.g. V850ES/SA2)
-mv850es or ‑mv850e1 Unsigned & signed load.
Ultra-low power products.
1.4mW/MIPS (2.5V product)
Shift to V850E2S requested.
V850E1F
(2005)
V850E/PH2, V850E/PH3
V850E/PHO3
Patch required (maybe). H/W float (single precision).
V850E2
(2004)
V850E2/ME3

NA85E2 SoC core[89][91]
(NEC's long-running cellular.
 Sets life = 2004—2012.)
-mv850e2 Not for new developments.
Many errata but still alive.
Single insn. executing.
(Dual-executing errata.)
Signed Load
7-stage pipeline.
S/W float.
Standard Products.
SoC Products.
V850E2(v2)
()
V850E2/xxn
(e.g. FIX ME)

NB85E2 SoC core[89][91][92]
-mv850e2 Errata cleaned up.
Dual instruction executing.
7-stage pipeline.
S/W float.
Standard Products.
SoC Products.
V850E2M
(2010)
 G3
V850E2/xxn
(e.g. V850E2/FG4)
RH850/nxn
-mv850e2v3 and -msoft-float S/W float.
Dual instruction executing.
7-stage pipeline.
2.56 Dhrystone MIPS/MHz
Multi CPU core support.
Memory Protection.
V850E2R
(2010)
 G3R
V850E2/xxn
(e.g. V850E2/MN4)
RH850/nxn
-mv850e2v3 H/W float (double precision).
Dual instruction executing.
7-stage pipeline.
2.56 Dhrystone MIPS/MHz
Multi CPU core support.
Memory Protection.
V850E2S
(2011)
 G3K
 G3KH
V850E2/xxn(-x)
(e.g. V850E2/Jx4-L)
(e.g. V850E2/Fx4-L)
RH850xnx
-mv850e2v3 and ‑msoft‑float S/W float.
5-stage pipeline.
1.9 Dhrystone MIPS/MHz
Multi CPU core support.
Memory Protection.
Ultra-ultra-low power.
Standard products.
 V850ES/xxn pin compat.
Automotive products.
 Shift to RH850 requested.
V850E2H
(2010)[93]
V850E3
(2014)
 G3M
 G3MH
RH850/xnx
(e.g. RH850/C1H)
-mv850e2v4 and ‑mloop
or
-mv850e3v5 and ‑mloop
SIMD extension.
64-bit multiple load/store.
Loop extension.
H/W float (double precision).
Memory Protection.
Multi CPU core support.
Automotive products.

[80][83][87][88][1][82][66][84][85][86][89][93]

SoC solutions[edit]

SoC IP cores[edit]

(Under construction)

In 1998, NEC started to provide V850 Family as a ASIC core to expand its ASIC business.[94] In addition, both the V850E1 CPU core named Nx85E[95][96] and the V850E2 CPU core named Nx85E2,[97] respectively, are also used for expanding its standard products business with ASIC design methodology.

The NA85E2C core, which is developed in 1.5V 150nm CB-12L (UX4L)[63][58] fabrication process, has many errata (4 pages appendix in preliminary architecture manual,[98]:230-233 plus 7 pages another restrictions document,[99] as long as disclosed on the web). But it seems not to be a matter for uses, because this is long-running product.

NEC also expanded the core for 130nm CB-130 (UX5) fabrication process[58] cell-base IC, but it is unclear.[100][101]

Synopsys DesignWare® IP core for V850E was once announced,[102] but support obsoleted.[103]


Name Core Cell-base
series
Power
supply
Node/
Channel
Fab.
proc.
[58]
Freq.
MHz
Type ICE Docs.
NA851C V851 CB-9VX 3.3V 350nm UC1 33 With peripheral [94][104]
NA853C V853 CB-9VX 3.3V 350nm UC1 33 With peripheral [94][105]
NA85E V850E1 CB-9VX 3.3V 350nm UC1 Bulk core [95]
NB85E V850E1 CB-9VX 3.3V 350nm UC1 66 Bulk core [106][107] [94][108][96]
NB85ET V850E1 CB-9VX 3.3V 350nm UC1 66 w/ Trace I/F [106][107] [94][108]
NB85E V850E1 CB-10 2.5V 250nm UC2 66 Bulk core [106][107] [108]
NB85ET V850E1 CB-10 2.5V 250nm UC2 66 w/ Trace I/F [106][107] [108]
NU85EA V850E1 CB-10VX 2.5V 250nm UC2 100 Bulk core [106][107] [108][109][110][111]
NU85ET V850E1 CB-10VX 2.5V 250nm UC2 100 w/ Trace I/F [106][107] [108][109][110][111]
NDU85ETV14 V850E1 CB-12L 1.5V 150nm/
130nm
UX4L w/ Trace I/F [106][107] [108][109][110]
NDU85ETVxx V850E1 CB-12M 1.5V 150nm/
130nm
UX4M w/ Trace I/F [106][107] [108][109][111]
NA85E2C V850E2 CB-12L 1.5V 150nm/
130nm
UX4L 200 w/ Trace I/F [91][112] [108][111]
NB85E2C V850E2 CB-12L 1.5V 150nm/
130nm
UX4L 200 w/ Trace I/F [91][112] [108][111]
V850E CB-130L 1.2V 130nm/
95nm
UX5L

[100][101]

FPGA prototyping systems for SoC[edit]

FPGA prototyping systems for V850E1, V850E2, and V850E2M core based SoC were intensively developed to expand SoC business. They comprised a V850 CPU core LSI (TEG) board and "FPGA add-on"s. Most of SoC products were for mobile equipments; because the power dissipation of original V800-Series RISC architecture was much lower compared with CSIC.[5][1][82] It is the same logic as the ARM (which stands for Acorn RISC Machine) architecture is widely used for mobile gadgets.

†TEG: Test Element Group

(Under construction)

  • Renesas (NEC): Microssp (2006)[92]
  • Renesas (NEC): Hybrid Emulator (2007)[116]
  • Renesas (NEC): PFESiP® EP1 Evaluation Board (2008)[117]
  • Renesas (NEC): PFESiP® EP1 Evaluation Board Lite (2008)[118]
  • Renesas (NEC): PFESiP® EP3 Evaluation Board (2010): V850E2M CPU core, max. 266 MHz operation[119]

Strategic confusion[edit]

Around 2011–2014, Renesas Electronics expanded the V850E2 product line intensively,[120][121] but this high-pace expansion brought much confusions. For example, some of V850E2/xxn products have already been requested to replace with RH850/xnx as of 2018,[122] probably because of the Product Longevity Program (PLP) point of view.[123]

In addition, in 2012 Renesas intensively started to promote the migration from 10 years old V850ES/Jx3 product lines to newly produced V850E2/Jx4, such as for Ethernet and for USB,[124][125] but the newer products are not listed on their web site as of 2018.[35]


Currently, Renesas Electronics is designing "dual" lockstep system, but in more than 20 years ago, its predecessor NEC V60-V80 had "multiple modular" lockstep mechanism called FRM[126] either with roll-back by "retry" or with roll-forward by "exception" for each fault detected instruction in more than 20 years ago. In addition, NEC V60-V80 has plural of implementation of UNIX System V port product releases, one of which is real-time UNIX RX/UX-832[127] (here, 832 stands for μPD70833 (V80), not V832). Its multiprocessor implementation is called MUSTARD (A Multiprocessor Unix for Embedded Real-Time Systems), which works 8 processors at the maximum simultaneously, and their lockstep mechanism was dynamically configurable.[128] Now, where are these technologies ?


In 2001, both NEC Corporation and Synopsys, Inc. announced they agreed to promote V850E as DesignWare® IP core.[102][103] But as of 2018, the V850E is not listed on DesignWare libraries.[129]

Lucent Technologies and Texas Instruments once licensed V850 and V850E SoC core, respectively,[130][131][132][133] but the device can not be found. If these news would be realized, current Renesas Electronics would dominate current microcomputer market like ARM.

Metrowerks once developed CodeWarrior compiler for V850, which was one of the major compiler provider of V850 in 2006.[134] But around 2010, they discontinued it after absorption by Motorola's semiconductor sector in 1999, Freescale Semiconductor in 2003, currently NXP Semiconductors from 2015.

In 2006, NEC did not show any road map for the V850 Family as SoC cores. The V850E2 core, developed in 2004, described as the last core for SoC. Instead of that, NEC introduced ARM9 (arm v5) and ARM11 (arm v6), especially for mobile equipments.[92] But this corporate decision suddenly decreased both the net profit of LSI devices, because of the royalty for ARM and of the price competition with other ARM SoC providers. The sales revenue of the "V850 total solutions," such as development tools, real-time OS, middle-ware packages, and in-circuit emulators, also decreased. The number of sold V850 device count was also suddenly decreased because mobile equipments were the major customers of V850E1 and V850E2 cores at that moment. As the result, in 2009, NEC Electronics merged with Rnesas Technology Corp.[135]

In 2008, KMC (Kyoto Mictocomputer), which is one of the major and of the first provider of in-circuit emulator for V850 Family, announced exeGCC updating from Rel. 3 to Rel. 4,[136] but it excluded V850 form this updating list, although PowerPC and ARM v7 was newly added. It chose SH-4A and ARM v7 instead of V850 and RH850[137] though it had been tightly worked with NEC and Renesas Electronics.[134]

The V850 CPU cores run uClinux,[138] but on October 9th 2008, Linux kernel support for V850 was removed in revision 2.6.27.[139], because NEC stopped the maintenance.[140][141][142] The person in charge of V850 Linux kernel maintenance was moved from NEC to Renesas by its merger, but his job was still compiler design and never returned to Linux kernel maintenance.[143] In the world of Open Source Software, no contribution means no support. Regarding the Linux kernel support as of 2018, Renesas Electronics mainly focuses on SH3/SH4 and M32R processors.[144][145][146][147][148]

Former contributors of this article seems to misunderstand that the V850/RH850 architecture has already DIED because they used the verb WAS for descriptions; including the first sentence, but in fact, it seems still ALIVE and to be in promotion.

Target software solutions[edit]

Libraries[edit]

(Under construction)

crt0.S for the latest v850e3v5 microarchitecture is available.[150][151][152]

Middleware packages[edit]

(Under construction)

Operating systems[edit]

(Under construction)

Some of operating systems require the Memory Protection Unit (MPU) to divide tasks (or threads) strictly for reliability and safety reasons. In such cases, v850e2v3 (Gen. 3) microarchitecture or above are required.

I-TRON based real-time OS[edit]

  • Renesas:
    • RI850MP Real-time OS for V850E2M Dual Core[156]
    • RI850V4 V2 Real-time OS for RH850 Family[157]
    • RI850V4 V1 Real-time OS for V850 Family[158]
→ In 2003, at Rel. 1.3, V850 dedicated part bug fixed.[159]
→ Kernel update history[160]
  • A.I. Corporation: Toppers-Pro/xxx[161]
  • T-Engine Project: Open source T-Kernel by TRON Forum[162]
  • eSOL: eT-Kernel; Extended T-Kernel — RTOS for embedded systems[163][164]
    • eT-Kernel/Compact, eT-Kernel/Embedded, eT-Kernel/POSIX
    • eT-Kernel Multi-Core Edition

AUTOSAR, OSEK/VDX compliant real-time OS[edit]

AUTOSAR is a open systems architecture of operating system for automotive industry. Its purpose is to establish the standardization of ECU; Electronic Control Unit for automotive engines. AUTOSAR is upper compatible specification of OSEK/VDX, which is also a consortium name of Germany established in 1993.

Because current RH850 and V850 is mainly targeted for automotive industry, it is one of a strategical product of Renesas Electronics. But documentation is only in Japanese probably because its main customer is Toyota Motor Corporation.

  • Renesas: RV850 (in Japanese)[165]
  • HighTec EDV-Systeme GmbH: EB tresos Safety OS[166]
  • Toppers Project: Open source TOPPERS/AUTOSAR[167]
  • eSOL: eMCOS AUTOSAR profile[168]

Other real-time OS[edit]

  • SEGGER

Linux[edit]

On October 9th 2008, Linux kernel support for V850 was removed in revision 2.6.27.[139]

Software development tools[edit]

Compilers and assemblers[edit]

Most of the compilers, both for the V850 Family; and for the RH850 Family, are exactly the same product, and extended ISA targets are controlled by "command line options."[182][183]

Compilers for the V850 Fmily and the RH850 Family include:

  • Renesas:
    • C Compiler Package for V850 Family[189]
      • CA850 C compiler for V850E1 and V850ES (v850e1 and/or v850es, a.k.a. Gen. 1)[190]
      • CX C compiler for V850E2M and V850E2S (v850e2v3, a.k.a. Gen. 3)
    • Software Package for V850 [SP850] for V850E2 (v850e2(v2), a.k.a. Gen. 2)[191]
    • CC-RH C compiler package for G3, G3K(H), G3M(H)[192]
  • HighTec EDV Systeme GmbH: HighTec Development Platform[199][200]

Disassemblers[edit]

Usually, dis-assemblers are provided as a part of C compiler or assembler packages.

e.g.)
  • The GNU Binutils: objdump (v850-elf-objdump or v850-elf32-objdump)[203]

Screen debuggers[edit]

(Under construction)

  • Renesas:
    • ID850
    • ID850NW
    • ID850QB
  • NDK (Naito Densei Kogyo Co. Ltd, Group): Operation started in 1950 as subsidiary of NEC.
    • NW-V850-32
  • Red Hat, Inc.: Insight (GDB-Tk)
  • KMC (Kyoto Microcomputer) and Midias Lab.: PARTNER[205]
  • GHS (Green Hills Software): Multi
  • Sohwa & Sophia Technologies:WATCHPOINT[206]
  • DTS INSIGHT (formerly YDC, Yokogawa Digital Computer): microVIEW-PLUS
  • Computex: CSIDE

Software simulators[edit]

(Under construction)

Analyzers[edit]

(Under construction)

  • Renesas: AZ850 and TW850

Dynamic code analyzers with simulator[edit]

  • Gaio Technology: coverage Master winAMS[209]

Static code analyzers[edit]

  • GHS (Green Hills Software): DoubleCheck ISA (Integrated Static Analysis) tool[210]
  • Rogue Wave Software, Inc: Klocwork[211]

Integrated development environments[edit]

(Under construction)

Hardware development tools[edit]

ICE (In-circuit emulators)[edit]

Most of in-circuit emulators, such as Rnesas IE850 (formerly IECUBE2) ,[213] can be used both for V850 Family and for RH850 Family, but may require firmware updating. The latest "trace function" of the JTAG (N-Wire[214] ) based in-circuit emulator is replaced from the N-Trace (single-ended signaling)[215] to the Aurora Trace (differential signaling).[216]

(Under construction)

Full probing pod type[edit]

  • Renesas IE850 (formerly IECUBE2)[213]
  • Naito Densei Machida Mfg. Co., Ltd. (Operation started as NEC's subsidiary.)
    • Asmis brand for custom LSIs.[217]

ROM emulator type[edit]

  • Rnesas
  • KMC (Kyoto Micro Computer): PARTNER-ET II (obsoleted)

JTAG N-Wire and N-Trace type[edit]

(Under construction)

N-Wire and N-Trace [218][215] is a JTAG-based debugging interface specification, which circuit implementation is called TAP Controller (Test Access Port controller),[219] primarily compiled by Philips N.V. (currently NXP Semiconductors) about a quarter century ago. But it is perhaps not disclosed publicly in its earlier stage. As the result, each semiconductor and in-circuit emulator vendor implemented similar interfaces independently. Nowadays, it is standardized by IEEE 1149.1 Working Group.[220]

  • Renesas
    • PCMCIA N-Wire Card IE-V850E1-CD-NW[221]
  • Naito Densei Machida Mfg. Co., Ltd. (Operation started as NEC's subsidiary.): Asmis brand. [222]
  • Midas Lab.: RTE-2000H[223]

with PARTNER[205][106] debugger

  • Computex: PALMiCE3 V850[226]
  • Sohwa & Sophia Technologies: Universal Probe Blue[227]

with WATCHPOINT debugger[206]

  • KMC (Kyoto Micro Computer): PARTNER-Jet (obsoleted)[228]

Nexus and Aurora trace type[edit]

(Under construction)

On board Flash ROM writers[edit]

(Under construction)

Evaluation boards[edit]

(Under construction)

References and notes[edit]

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    Abstract:
    An advanced 32-bit RISC microprocessor for embedded control; V810 is introduced in this paper. The V810 has high performance and application specified functions. V810 dissipates less power than any other RISC chips. The V810 is the first 32-bit RISC microprocessor that operates at 2.2V.
    The V810 chip is fabricated by using 0.8μm CMOS double metal layer process technology to integrate 240,000 transistors on a 7.7×7.7mm2 die.
     
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  7. ^ "Optiarc AD7240S". www.cdrinfo.com. Team CDRInfo.COM. 2009-06-29.
    Built-in CPU functionality
    • Onboard 32-bit RISC CPU (V850ES core)
    • Built-in RAM (14KB)
    • Power management functionality
    • Built-in peripheral circuits (timer, interrupt controller, serial interface)
     
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    All V850 products are upwards compatible. As a result, today's sophisticated components can still execute the same instructions as their forebears. The architecture has undergone continual improvements with extensions to the instruction set, and today it offers computing power of up to 2.6 Dhrystone MIPS/MHz. Further performance increases can be achieved by integrating several of these processor cores on a single chip, delivering twice or even four times more computing power.
     
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    Abstract:
    An advanced 32-bit RISC microprocessor for embedded control; V810 is introduced in this paper. The V810 has high performance and application specified functions.
    V810 dissipates less power than any other RISC chips. The V810 is the first 32-bit RISC microprocessor that operates at 2.2V.
    The V810 chip is fabricated by using 0.8μm CMOS double metal layer process technology to integrate 240,000 transistors on a 7.7×7.7mm2 die.
     
  57. ^ Kusuda, Masahiro; Hirai, Miho; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Daito, Masayuki; Suzuki, Chika; Kimura, Akiko; Demura, Shigeki; Ishibashi, Takashi; Sato, Syoichiro (September 1992). "低消費電力・低電圧動作のオリジナル32ビットRISCマイクロプロセッサV810" [V810-Low Power Consumption and Low Voltage Operation 32-bit RISC Microprocessor.] (image/jp2). NEC Technical Journal (in Japanese). http://jglobal.jst.go.jp/public/20090422/200902076847477812: NEC Corporation. 45 (8): 66–73. ISSN 0285-4139. 000000018731. 
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    Abstract:
    An advanced 32-bit RISC microprocessor for embedded controls ; V810 and it's design technique are described in this paper. The V810 is fablicated by using 0.8μm CMOS double metal layer process technology to integrate 240,000 transisters on a 7.7×7.7mm2 die. In design of the V810, we used design automation techniques. The V810 was analyzed for logical correctness and timing constraint before fabrication. Finally, V810 executed realtime-OS and SPEC benchmarks correctly at first silicons.
     
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    Abstract:
    Progress of logic/layout synthesis makes it possible to design circuits by Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). When a designed circuit is small, it is synthesized automatically from HDL description. In this paper, to make it clear what kinds of problems are there in designing a large circuit looks like a processor, we design a processor and some components of it by HDLs in RT level and evaluate circuits synthesized by a logic/layout synthesis tool.
     
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See also[edit]

External links[edit]