Security-focused operating system
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This is a list of operating systems with a sharp security focus. Here, "security-focused" means that the project is specifically focused on security. General-purpose operating systems may be extremely secure without being specifically "security-focused."
Other similar concepts include security-evaluated operating systems -- operating systems that have achieved certification from an external security-auditing organization -- and trusted operating systems -- operating systems that provides sufficient support for multilevel security and evidence of correctness to meet a particular set of government requirements.
This list is alphabetical and does not imply a ranking.
- CopperheadOS is a hardened FOSS operating system based on the Android mobile platform, which uses an unofficial port of PaX.
- Replicant is a FOSS operating system based on the Android mobile platform, which aims to replace all proprietary Android components with their free software counterparts. It is available for several smartphones and tablet computers. In March 2014, the Replicant project announced the discovery of a backdoor present in a wide range of Samsung Galaxy products that allows the baseband processor to read and write the device's storage, sometimes with normal user privileges and sometimes as the root user, depending on device model. It is not generally known whether Samsung's proprietary firmware for the radio chip can be remotely instructed to use these access features and the intentions of creating such a backdoor.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)
- Kali Linux is a Debian-derived Linux distribution designed for digital forensics and penetration testing, formerly known as BackTrack.
- Tails is a security-focused Debian-based Linux distribution aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity.
- Parrot Security OS is a Cloud oriented GNU/Linux distribution based on Debian and designed to perform security and penetration tests, do forensic analysis, or act in anonymity. It uses the MATE Desktop Environment, Linux Kernel 4.6 or higher and it is available as a live lightweight installable ISO image for 32-bit, 64-bit and ARM processors with forensic options at boot, optimizations for programmers, and new custom pentesting tools.
- Whonix is an anonymous general purpose operating system based on VirtualBox, Debian GNU/Linux and Tor. By Whonix design, IP and DNS leaks are impossible. Not even Malware as Superuser can find out the user's real IP address/location. This is because Whonix consists of two (virtual) machines. One machine solely runs Tor and acts as a gateway, called Whonix-Gateway. The other machine, called Whonix-Workstation, is on a completely isolated network. Only connections through Tor are possible.
- Anonym.OS was a Live CD operating system based on OpenBSD 3.8 with strong encryption and anonymization tools. The goal of the project was to provide secure, anonymous web browsing access to everyday users. The project was discontinued after the release of Beta 4 (2006).
- TrustedBSD is a sub-project of FreeBSD designed to add trusted operating system extensions, targeting the Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation (see also Orange Book). Its main focuses are working on access control lists, event auditing, extended attributes, mandatory access controls, and fine-grained capabilities. Since access control lists are known to be confronted with the confused deputy problem, capabilities are a different way to avoid this issue. As part of the TrustedBSD project, there is also a port of NSA's FLASK/TE implementation to run on FreeBSD. Many of these trusted extensions have been integrated into the main FreeBSD branch starting at 5.x.
- Qubes OS is a desktop operating system based around the Xen hypervisor that allows grouping programs into a number of isolated sandboxes (virtual machines) to provide security. Windows for programs running within these sandboxes ("security domains") can be color coded for easy recognition. The security domains are configurable, they can be transient (changes to the file system will not be preserved), and their network connection can be routed through special virtual machines (for example one that only provides Tor networking). The operating system provides secure mechanisms for copy and paste and for copying files between the security domains.
- Hardened Gentoo is a sub-project of the Gentoo Linux project. Hardened Gentoo offers a ProPolice protected and position-independent executable base using exactly the same package tree as Gentoo. Executable space protection in Hardened Gentoo is handled by PaX. The Hardened Gentoo project is an extremely modular[clarification needed] project, and also provides subprojects to integrate other intrusion-detection and mandatory access control systems into Gentoo. All of these can be optionally installed in any combination, with or without PaX and a ProPolice base.
- Pentoo Penetration Testing Overlay and Livecd is a live CD and Live USB designed for penetration testing and security assessment. Based on Gentoo Linux, Pentoo is provided both as 32-bit and 64-bit installable live cd. Pentoo also is available as an overlay for an existing Gentoo installation. It features packet injection patched wifi drivers, GPGPU cracking software, and lots of tools for penetration testing and security assessment. The Pentoo kernel includes grsecurity and PAX hardening and extra patches – with binaries compiled from a hardened toolchain with the latest nightly versions of some tools available.
- Tin Hat Linux is derived from Hardened Gentoo Linux. It aims to provide a very secure, stable, and fast desktop environment that lives purely in RAM.
Other Linux distros
- Alpine Linux is a lightweight musl and BusyBox-based distribution. It uses PaX and grsecurity patches in the default kernel and compiles all packages with stack-smashing protection. Version 3.7.0 was released November 30, 2017.
- Annvix was originally forked from Mandriva to provide a security-focused server distribution that employs ProPolice protection, hardened configuration, and a small footprint. There were plans to include full support for the RSBAC mandatory access control system. However, Annvix is dormant, with the last version being released on December 30, 2007.
- EnGarde Secure Linux is a secure platform designed for servers. It has had a browser-based tool for MAC using SELinux since 2003. Additionally, it can be accompanied with Web, DNS, and email enterprise applications, specifically focusing on security without any unnecessary software. The community platform of EnGarde Secure Linux is the bleeding-edge version freely available for download.
- Immunix was a commercial distribution of Linux focused heavily on security. They supplied many systems of their own making, including StackGuard; cryptographic signing of executables; race condition patches; and format string exploit guarding code. Immunix traditionally releases older versions of their distribution free for non-commercial use. The Immunix distribution itself is licensed under two licenses: The Immunix commercial and non-commercial licenses. Many tools within are GPL, however; as is the kernel.
- Solar Designer's Openwall Project (Owl) was the first distribution to have a non-executable userspace stack, /tmp race condition protection, and access control restrictions to /proc data, by way of a kernel patch. It also features a per-user tmp directory via the pam_mktemp PAM module, and supports Blowfish password encryption.
- Subgraph OS is a Linux-based operating system designed to be resistant to surveillance and interference by sophisticated adversaries over the Internet. Subgraph OS is designed with features which aim to reduce the attack surface of the operating system, and increase the difficulty required to carry out certain classes of attack. This is accomplished through system hardening and a proactive, ongoing focus on security and attack resistance. Subgraph OS also places emphasis on ensuring the integrity of installed software packages through deterministic compilation. Subgraph OS features a kernel hardedned with the Grsecurity and PaX patchset, Linux namespaces, and Xpra for application containment, mandatory file system encryption using LUKS, resistance to cold boot attacks, and is configured by default to isolate network communications for installed applications to independent circuits on the Tor anonymity network.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)
These operating systems are all engineered around the object-capabilities security paradigm,where instead of having the system deciding if an access request should be granted the bundling of authority and designation makes it impossible to request anything not legitimate.
- Trusted Solaris is a security-focused version of the Solaris Unix operating system. Aimed primarily at the government computing sector, Trusted Solaris adds detailed auditing of all tasks, pluggable authentication, mandatory access control, additional physical authentication devices, and fine-grained access control. Trusted Solaris is Common Criteria certified. The most recent version, Trusted Solaris 8 (released 2000), received the EAL4 certification level augmented by a number of protection profiles. Telnet was vulnerable to buffer overflow exploits until patched in April 2001.
Starting with Windows Server 2008, Windows Server has added an installation option called "Server Core", in which the traditional graphical user interface is not installed. Administration, in Windows Server 2008, should rely on Windows Command Prompt. Roles and components are then installed individually. This option reduces the Windows Server footprint, the result of which is reduced demand on system resources and reduced number of components that could potentially be exploited via potential security vulnerabilities.
Later, with Windows Server 2016, Microsoft introduced a Nano Server installation option with even more reduced footprint. It is headless and does not support a locally connected keyboard and monitor. Nano Server in Windows Server 1709 (the constantly updated sibling of Windows Server 2016) can only be installed in a container.
- Porup, J.M. (9 August 2016). "Copperhead OS: The startup that wants to solve Android's woeful security". arstechnica.co.uk. Ars Technica UK.
- Corbet, Jonathan (17 February 2016). "CopperheadOS: Securing the Android". lwn.net.
- Linder, Brad (29 March 2016). "F-Droid, Copperhead, Guardian Project partner to create a security-focused, Android-based ecosystem". liliputing.com.
- "Overview - Replicant". Redmine.replicant.us. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Paul Kocialkowski (February 4, 2012). "WikiStart – Replicant". Redmine.replicant.us. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- "Android and Users' Freedom - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation". Gnu.org. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- "About". Replicant project. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Don Reisinger (13 March 2014). "Samsung Galaxy devices may have backdoor to user data, developer says". CNET. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Michael Larabel (12 March 2014). "Replicant Developers Find Backdoor In Android Samsung Galaxy Devices". Phoronix. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Paul Kocialkowski. "Samsung Galaxy Back-door". Replicant Wiki. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Dieguez Castro, Jose (2016). Introducing Linux Distros. Apress. p. 350. ISBN 978-1-4842-1393-3.
- "Kali Linux Has Been Released!". 2013-03-12. Retrieved 2013-03-18.
- Vervloesem, Koen (2011-04-27). "The Amnesic Incognito Live System: A live CD for anonymity [LWN.net]". lwn.net. Retrieved 2017-06-14.
- Quinn Norton (January 14, 2006). "Anonyity on a Disc". Wired.com. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
- "Redirecting..." qubes-os.org. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- "Tin Hat". D'Youville College.
- "Sun Patch: Trusted Solaris 8 4/01: in.telnet patch". 4 October 2002. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
4734086 in.telnetd vulnerable to buffer overflow ?? (Solaris bug 4483514)
- Lohr, Heidi (1 November 2017). "What is Server Core 2008". Docs. Microsoft.
- Poggemeyer, Liza; Hall, Justin (6 September 2017). "Install Nano Server". Docs. Microsoft.
- Poggemeyer, Liza; Lich, Brian. "Changes to Nano Server in Windows Server Semi-Annual Channel". Docs. Microsoft. Retrieved 27 January 2018.